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Open Access
  • © Paloma Troyano-Hernáez
  • , et al.
  • 2022

Short Communication: Update in Natural Antiretroviral Resistance-Associated Mutations Among HIV Type 2 Variants and Discrepancies Across HIV Type 2 Resistance Interpretation Tools

  • Paloma Troyano-Hernáez 1
  • Roberto Reinosa 1
  • María Concepción Burgos 1
  • África Holguín 1
  • 1 - HIV-1 Molecular Epidemiology Laboratory - Department of Microbiology and Parasitology - Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria (IRYCIS) - Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal - CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) - Red en Investigación Translacional en Infecciones Pediátricas (RITIP) - Madrid Spain


HIV variants carry natural polymorphisms related to drug resistance (R-markers) fixed during viral evolution in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) that may impact on drug susceptibility and resistance pathways. We aimed to identify the HIV type 2 (HIV-2) variant-specific R-markers at Pol in all available sequences from ART-naive subjects deposited in Los Alamos database according to reported HIV-2 drug resistance-associated mutations (DRMs) and report the performance of two online HIV-2 resistance interpretation tools (HIV2EU Tool and Stanford HIVdb Program for HIV-2) to detect them. From a total of 587 sequences, we found 23 R-markers in low frequency, in groups A, B, and G. Four were present in >10% of the sequences with no direct impact on antiretroviral susceptibility. HIV2EU Tool detected one, whereas Stanford program all four. Stanford new tool, although still under development, seems effective in detecting HIV-2 DRMs and may prove a useful tool for HIV-2 resistance interpretation when fully developed.


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