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Short Communication: Evaluation of Antiretroviral Drug Concentrations in Minimally Invasive Specimens for Potential Development of Point-of-Care Drug Assays

  • Richard E. Haaland 1
  • Amy Martin 1
  • 1 - Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - Atlanta Georgia


Point-of-care (POC) tests for antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) could help improve individual adherence. This study sought to define the utility of urine, blood, and buccal swabs as minimally invasive specimens amenable to development of POC tests for ARVs. Urine, dried blood spots (DBS) and buccal swabs were collected from 35 HIV-negative men between 2 and 96 h after a single dose of tenofovir (TFV) alafenamide/emtricitabine (FTC)/elvitegravir (EVG)/cobicistat and darunavir (DRV). ARV concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. High concentrations of FTC, DRV, and TFV were detectable in urine at least 24 h after dosing. FTC, DRV, and EVG remained detectable in DBS at least 24 h postdose. FTC and DRV were detectable on buccal swabs up to 2 and 24 h postdose, respectively. TFV was not detectable in DBS or buccal swabs collected between 2 and 96 h after dosing. Variable distribution of ARVs in minimally invasive specimens highlights the challenge of developing POC assays for recent ARV exposure.



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