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Protocol Primers

Technical briefs on current and emerging biotech protocols.


Planning Your Next Chemogenetic Experiment

Mar 7, 2022

Chemogenetic experiments have been used to study a wide variety of behaviors, such as triggers for substance abuse,eating disorders, obesity, obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities, long term memory, hypertension, locomotor ability, as well as pain, startle, and fear responses. For instance,Hori... More


Immunodiagnostics in the Post-Covid Era

Feb 22, 2022

The benefits of globalization have ushered in the reality of fast-spreading infectious diseases. This has made the quick development of preventive vaccines and immune therapies imperative. Spread of pathogens through rapid and constant travel is compounded by the multipronged challenges ranging from... More


Dried Blood Spot Testing: Advantages and Disadvantages

Feb 7, 2022

In vitro diagnostics, marketed directly to consumers without the involvement of a health care provider are called direct-to-consumer tests, or DTC, which are facilitated through easy-to-collect sample matrices such as dried blood spots (DBS), saliva, or swabs that allow the safe and stable transport... More


Ensuring Immunodiagnostic Efficacy with Pathogen Evolution

Jan 18, 2022

Viruses mutate frequently evolving into new variants and strains over time. Antigenic drift is the process of random genetic mutations of an infectious agent resulting in minor changes in proteins called antigens. These copying errors occur when the virus replicates. Over time, these mutations can r... More


Testing Host Immune Responses and Transmissibility

Jan 3, 2022

Nonspecific, innate immune response is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Cells of the innate immune system such as macrophages, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells prevent the spread of foreign pathogens throughout the body.An innate immune response also triggers specific a... More