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Protocol Primers

Technical briefs on current and emerging biotech protocols.


Ensuring Immunodiagnostic Efficacy with Pathogen Evolution

Jan 18, 2022

Viruses mutate frequently evolving into new variants and strains over time. Antigenic drift is the process of random genetic mutations of an infectious agent resulting in minor changes in proteins called antigens. These copying errors occur when the virus replicates. Over time, these mutations can r... More


Testing Host Immune Responses and Transmissibility

Jan 3, 2022

Nonspecific, innate immune response is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Cells of the innate immune system such as macrophages, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells prevent the spread of foreign pathogens throughout the body.An innate immune response also triggers specific a... More


Challenges of Organoid Culture

Dec 20, 2021

Complex patient models, including organoids and organ-on-a-chip devices, have been developing tremendously fast over the last decade.1 Organoids are 3D multicellular in vitro tissue constructs that functionally and genetically mimic portions of in vivo organs. Properly supplemented media allow the c... More


Separating Blood into Cellular and Non-Cellular Components

Nov 30, 2021

A key diagnostic step in disease detection is analyzing blood components. Accurate separation of blood cells from plasma, which holds proteins and other constituents, is crucial in many assays.First introduced in the late 1980s, lateral flow devices, also referred to as lateral flow immunoassays, ar... More


Saliva, Nasal Swabs, or Blood: Best Samples for Pathogen Detection

Nov 22, 2021

Most immunodiagnostic protocols and commercially available kits require serum, plasma, or blood samples. Collecting such samples requires the skills of a phlebotomist. For pathogen detection, particularly in largescale field studies, the collection of noninvasive samples such asnasal swabs, tears, o... More