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Protocol Primers

Technical briefs on current and emerging biotech protocols.


Quick Antibiotic Susceptibility Test for High-Threat Pathogens in Whole Blood Samples

Jun 17, 2022

By spreading so rapidly and wreaking so much havoc, COVID-19 has revealed the susceptibility of global societies to both natural pathogens and intentionally released bioterror agents. The latter include bacteria that have been engineered for enhanced antibiotic resistance.1 Once pathogenic bacteria ... More


Impedance Spectroscopy Measures Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Real Time

Jun 2, 2022

Antimicrobial drugs save millions of lives each year. However, in 2019, antibiotic-resistant microorganisms were associated with nearly 5 million deaths worldwide1. The alarming trend of bacterial antimicrobial resistance may further worsen as many COVID-19 patients are administered broad spectrum a... More


Methods to Improve Efficiency of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Microfluidic Impedance Cytometry

Apr 25, 2022

The global issue of antimicrobial resistance has been called a “slow motion catastrophe” resulting from the excessive and often inappropriate use of antibiotics to fight bacterial infections.1 A long-standing unmet need is the availability of a quick and easy clinical test to support a more evidence... More


Tips for Increasing Transfection Efficiency

Apr 4, 2022

Chemical transfection, which relies on the formation of a condensed complex of positively chargedliposomal or non-liposomal reagents and negatively charged nucleic acids,is the most common method for delivering foreign genetic material into cultured cells. Complexes are attracted to the negatively c... More


Selecting a Functional Oligonucleotide from a Random Mix

Mar 21, 2022

SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) was first described and used in 1990 to isolate a functional oligonucleotide from a random pool of differently-shaped DNA or RNA molecules.1-2SELEX-derived oligonucleotides (RNA or single-stranded DNA) known as aptamers, bind with hig... More