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GEN Protocols

Infectious Diseases

Infectious Diseases

Application

A Fast and High Precision Influenza Vaccine Potency Assay

Fast and accurate determination of vaccine titre during influenza vaccine manufacture is important in understanding process performance and correctly scaling each process step. Traditionally assays such as Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID) and ELISA have their limitations; SRID, though the ‘gold ... More


Video

GEN Protocols Expert Exchanges: COVID-19 Immunodiagnostic Test Identifies Antibody Source

Need another COVID-19 booster?A new immunodiagnostic test called PictArray helps you decide. The test tells you exactly where your antibodies to the virus are coming from - whether your antibodies are from vaccines or SARS-CoV-2 infections, or both. The test detects SARS-CoV-2 antigens--both spike p... More


Primer

Assessing qRT-PCR COVID-19 Testing Results: What Can Go Wrong?

COVID-19 is commonly diagnosed by quantitative fluorescence real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) (1, 2). The test is the sequential action of two enzymes--an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, also known as a reverse transcriptase, to copy the SARS-CoV-2 RNA into complement... More


Primer

Pathogen Detection Assays: Advantages, Disadvantages and Alternatives

Viral infections are difficult to diagnose based on the patient’s clinical presentation alone. A reliable and accurate diagnosis requires laboratory-based testing for the pathogen of interest. Such laboratory testing involves either the direct detection of viral antigens, or detection of virus-speci... More


Primer

Qualitative, Semi-quantitative, and Quantitative Immunodiagnostics for COVID-19

While qualitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) are used to diagnose COVID-19, serologic tests for antibodies specific to the SARS-CoV-2 virus are used to detect past infection. Most serologic assays are qualitative and semi-quantitative but quantitative serologic assays ... More


Primer

Saliva, Nasal Swabs, or Blood: Best Samples for Pathogen Detection

Most immunodiagnostic protocols and commercially available kits require serum, plasma, or blood samples. Collecting such samples requires the skills of a phlebotomist. For pathogen detection, particularly in largescale field studies, the collection of noninvasive samples such asnasal swabs, tears, o... More


Primer

Testing Host Immune Responses and Transmissibility

Nonspecific, innate immune response is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Cells of the innate immune system such as macrophages, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells prevent the spread of foreign pathogens throughout the body.An innate immune response also triggers specific a... More


Primer

Ensuring Immunodiagnostic Efficacy with Pathogen Evolution

Viruses mutate frequently evolving into new variants and strains over time. Antigenic drift is the process of random genetic mutations of an infectious agent resulting in minor changes in proteins called antigens. These copying errors occur when the virus replicates. Over time, these mutations can r... More


Primer

Dried Blood Spot Testing: Advantages and Disadvantages

In vitro diagnostics, marketed directly to consumers without the involvement of a health care provider are called direct-to-consumer tests, or DTC, which are facilitated through easy-to-collect sample matrices such as dried blood spots (DBS), saliva, or swabs that allow the safe and stable transport... More


Primer

Immunodiagnostics in the Post-Covid Era

The benefits of globalization have ushered in the reality of fast-spreading infectious diseases. This has made the quick development of preventive vaccines and immune therapies imperative. Spread of pathogens through rapid and constant travel is compounded by the multipronged challenges ranging from... More


Protocol

CodePlex Secretome

This protocol outlines the standard method for thawing and loading samples onto the CodePlex chip. ... More


Protocol

IsoCode Single-Cell Innate Immune: Human Monocyte Protocol Using Membrane Stain

A. OverviewOverview of ProtocolDay 1: Cryopreserved cells are thawed and cultured overnight in complete RPMI media.Day 2: Enrichment and Stimulation of Monocytes for 24 hours.Day 3: Staining and Loading of Monocytes onto IsoCode Chip.... More


Protocol

Rapid metabolic phenotyping in SARS-CoV-2 patients using the impact II QTOF MS system

The impact II QTOF system meets the critical elements of sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, and precision for targeted metabolite analysis. The continuous collection of both MS and MS/MS data provides an exponentially deeper and broader pool of data valuable for subsequent retrospective discovery o... More


Protocol

Short Communication: HIV Viral Load Trends During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic in a Reference Center for HIV in Rome, Italy

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has reduced the access of HIV patients to reference centers. However, retention-in-care is critical to maintain adherence to therapy and viral suppression. During lockdown in Italy, our center implemented several measures to ensure HIV-care continuum. To ... More


Protocol

Short Communication: Communication Between Pregnant Women and Male Partners About HIV Testing in the United States

Male partner uptake of HIV testing during antenatal care is poor despite women's reported desire for partner testing. This qualitative study of HIV-negative pregnant women and their partners in a high HIV prevalence city in the United States assessed communication between partners about HIV testing.... More


Protocol

Short Communication: Evaluation of Antiretroviral Drug Concentrations in Minimally Invasive Specimens for Potential Development of Point-of-Care Drug Assays

Point-of-care (POC) tests for antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) could help improve individual adherence. This study sought to define the utility of urine, blood, and buccal swabs as minimally invasive specimens amenable to development of POC tests for ARVs. Urine, dried blood spots (DBS) and buccal swabs ... More


Protocol

Short Communication: A Pilot Study of the Effects of Losartan Versus Placebo on Pneumoproteins in HIV: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Double Blind Study

HIV is an independent risk factor for lung disease, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema. Angiotensin receptor blockers may be beneficial in COPD and emphysema through pathways that have been implicated in HIV-related lung disease. We performed a randomized comparison... More


Protocol

Short Communication: Update in Natural Antiretroviral Resistance-Associated Mutations Among HIV Type 2 Variants and Discrepancies Across HIV Type 2 Resistance Interpretation Tools

HIV variants carry natural polymorphisms related to drug resistance (R-markers) fixed during viral evolution in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) that may impact on drug susceptibility and resistance pathways. We aimed to identify the HIV type 2 (HIV-2) variant-specific R-markers at Pol in... More


Protocol

Short Communication: A Descriptive Analysis of Dried Blood Spot Adherence Testing Among Ugandans with HIV Presenting with Cryptococcal Meningitis

Early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation after cryptococcal meningitis increases mortality, and those unmasking cryptococcosis after 2 weeks of ART have higher mortality. However, it is unknown if those presenting as ART experienced are actually adherent to their ART. Unknowingly, restarting AR... More


Protocol

Short Communication:Evidence of Novel SARS-CoV-2 Variants Circulation in Romania

New SARS-CoV-2 variants are constantly emerging and putting a strain on public health systems by spreading faster and potentially evading immune protection through vaccination. One of these strains is the B.1.1.7 variant that has initially been described in the United Kingdom and has subsequently sp... More


Application

Access the Breadth of Sample Preparation Protocols to Awaken True Functional Immune Biology

Precedent Protocols and Processes ensure that enrichment, stimulation and labeling will result in maximizing the correlative data achieved, while minimizing non-specific impact on the cells themselves. Highlights: • Published enrichment, stimulation, and staining protocols throughout immunotherapy ... More


Application

A Fast and High Precision Influenza Vaccine Potency Assay

Fast and accurate determination of vaccine titre during influenza vaccine manufacture is important in understanding process performance and correctly scaling each process step. Traditionally assays such as Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID) and ELISA have their limitations; SRID, though the ‘gold ... More


Primer

Assessing qRT-PCR COVID-19 Testing Results: What Can Go Wrong?

COVID-19 is commonly diagnosed by quantitative fluorescence real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) (1, 2). The test is the sequential action of two enzymes--an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, also known as a reverse transcriptase, to copy the SARS-CoV-2 RNA into complement... More


Primer

Pathogen Detection Assays: Advantages, Disadvantages and Alternatives

Viral infections are difficult to diagnose based on the patient’s clinical presentation alone. A reliable and accurate diagnosis requires laboratory-based testing for the pathogen of interest. Such laboratory testing involves either the direct detection of viral antigens, or detection of virus-speci... More


Primer

Qualitative, Semi-quantitative, and Quantitative Immunodiagnostics for COVID-19

While qualitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) are used to diagnose COVID-19, serologic tests for antibodies specific to the SARS-CoV-2 virus are used to detect past infection. Most serologic assays are qualitative and semi-quantitative but quantitative serologic assays ... More


Primer

Saliva, Nasal Swabs, or Blood: Best Samples for Pathogen Detection

Most immunodiagnostic protocols and commercially available kits require serum, plasma, or blood samples. Collecting such samples requires the skills of a phlebotomist. For pathogen detection, particularly in largescale field studies, the collection of noninvasive samples such asnasal swabs, tears, o... More


Primer

Testing Host Immune Responses and Transmissibility

Nonspecific, innate immune response is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Cells of the innate immune system such as macrophages, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells prevent the spread of foreign pathogens throughout the body.An innate immune response also triggers specific a... More


Primer

Ensuring Immunodiagnostic Efficacy with Pathogen Evolution

Viruses mutate frequently evolving into new variants and strains over time. Antigenic drift is the process of random genetic mutations of an infectious agent resulting in minor changes in proteins called antigens. These copying errors occur when the virus replicates. Over time, these mutations can r... More


Primer

Dried Blood Spot Testing: Advantages and Disadvantages

In vitro diagnostics, marketed directly to consumers without the involvement of a health care provider are called direct-to-consumer tests, or DTC, which are facilitated through easy-to-collect sample matrices such as dried blood spots (DBS), saliva, or swabs that allow the safe and stable transport... More


Primer

Immunodiagnostics in the Post-Covid Era

The benefits of globalization have ushered in the reality of fast-spreading infectious diseases. This has made the quick development of preventive vaccines and immune therapies imperative. Spread of pathogens through rapid and constant travel is compounded by the multipronged challenges ranging from... More


Primer

Impedance Spectroscopy Measures Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Real Time

Antimicrobial drugs save millions of lives each year. However, in 2019, antibiotic-resistant microorganisms were associated with nearly 5 million deaths worldwide1. The alarming trend of bacterial antimicrobial resistance may further worsen as many COVID-19 patients are administered broad spectrum a... More


Primer

Rapid Detection of Diverse Infectious Agents in Skin Interstitial Fluid

A rapid and reliable skin-patch test1 can now detect the COVID-19 virus, and potentially other infectious agents in under three minutes, without the need to draw blood. This convenience overcomes a current challenge in identifying infected individuals who are averse to blood tests and could help res... More


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Video

GEN Protocols Expert Exchanges: COVID-19 Immunodiagnostic Test Identifies Antibody Source

Need another COVID-19 booster?A new immunodiagnostic test called PictArray helps you decide. The test tells you exactly where your antibodies to the virus are coming from - whether your antibodies are from vaccines or SARS-CoV-2 infections, or both. The test detects SARS-CoV-2 antigens--both spike p... More