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GEN Protocols

Drug Discovery

Drug Discovery

Primer

Unwanted Fungi: Detecting Microbial Cell Culture Contamination

Coming into the lab and spotting an obvious fungal growth, or the tell-tale signs of cloudy media, can be a stressful experience for researchers. When carrying out cell culture in the lab, contamination from microbial agents such as bacteria and fungus can occur and have disastrous effects on ongoin... More


Primer

Saliva, Nasal Swabs, or Blood: Best Samples for Pathogen Detection

Most immunodiagnostic protocols and commercially available kits require serum, plasma, or blood samples. Collecting such samples requires the skills of a phlebotomist. For pathogen detection, particularly in largescale field studies, the collection of noninvasive samples such asnasal swabs, tears, o... More


Primer

Separating Blood into Cellular and Non-Cellular Components

A key diagnostic step in disease detection is analyzing blood components. Accurate separation of blood cells from plasma, which holds proteins and other constituents, is crucial in many assays.First introduced in the late 1980s, lateral flow devices, also referred to as lateral flow immunoassays, ar... More


Primer

Challenges of Organoid Culture

Complex patient models, including organoids and organ-on-a-chip devices, have been developing tremendously fast over the last decade.1 Organoids are 3D multicellular in vitro tissue constructs that functionally and genetically mimic portions of in vivo organs. Properly supplemented media allow the c... More


Primer

Testing Host Immune Responses and Transmissibility

Nonspecific, innate immune response is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Cells of the innate immune system such as macrophages, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells prevent the spread of foreign pathogens throughout the body.An innate immune response also triggers specific a... More


Primer

Tips for Increasing Transfection Efficiency

Chemical transfection, which relies on the formation of a condensed complex of positively chargedliposomal or non-liposomal reagents and negatively charged nucleic acids,is the most common method for delivering foreign genetic material into cultured cells. Complexes are attracted to the negatively c... More


Primer

Methods to Improve Efficiency of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Microfluidic Impedance Cytometry

The global issue of antimicrobial resistance has been called a “slow motion catastrophe” resulting from the excessive and often inappropriate use of antibiotics to fight bacterial infections.1 A long-standing unmet need is the availability of a quick and easy clinical test to support a more evidence... More


Primer

Quick Antibiotic Susceptibility Test for High-Threat Pathogens in Whole Blood Samples

By spreading so rapidly and wreaking so much havoc, COVID-19 has revealed the susceptibility of global societies to both natural pathogens and intentionally released bioterror agents. The latter include bacteria that have been engineered for enhanced antibiotic resistance.1 Once pathogenic bacteria ... More


Primer

AI-Powered Phenotypic Profiling Revolutionizes Drug Discovery

Today, nine out of ten drugs fail in clinical trials. Furthermore, it takes over a decade and an average cost of $2 billion to develop and approve each medicine.1 An important underlying reason is the gap that exists between cell-based in vitro research and clinical research—often referred to as the... More


Primer

Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Upgrades Sensitivity

A new method for DNA amplification and sequencing called TAS-Seq improves the accuracy of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). TAS-Seq uses a terminal transferase enzyme that amplifies and sequences DNA complementary to mRNA (cDNA) in solid phase on a nanowell/magnetic bead-based cell isolation p... More


Protocol

CodePlex Secretome

This protocol outlines the standard method for thawing and loading samples onto the CodePlex chip. ... More


Protocol

IsoCode Single-Cell Adaptive Immune: Human CAR-T Protocol Using AF647-Conjugated Antibodies to CD4 and CD8

Overview of ProtocolDay 1: Cryopreserved CAR-T cells are thawed and cultured overnight in the presence of IL-2. Cryopreserved target cell lines are thawed, cultured, and passaged several days prior to beginning the experiment.Day 2: Enrichment and Antigen-Stimulation of CD8 + and/or CD4 + CAR-T cell... More


Protocol

Protein Aggregate Identification with FMM: Rapidly Distinguish Protein from Non-Protein Particles in Biologic Formulations

Don’t rely on unreliable morphology characteristics or refractive index to determine if particles in your formulation are protein or non-protein. Aura systems are the only particle analyzer that combines fluorescence membrane microscopy (FMM) with backgrounded membrane image (BMI) to give you defini... More


Protocol

Studying protein-drug complexes under native conditions in the low nM range using MRMS

Protein ligand complexes need to be preserved through the electrospray and detection process. This work describes high resolution native mass spectrometric measurements of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase II (Figure 1) and the non-covalent complex with the substrate acetazolamide (Figure 2) using a sci... More


Protocol

How to Determine Glycan Profiles of Biopharmaceuticals from Peptide Mapping Data

Glycosylation is a common critical quality attribute (CQA) of therapeutic proteins and needs to be characterized during product development. Typically, this analysis is conducted after enzymatic release and tagging of the glycans followed by fluorescence and MS detection. However, that approach lose... More


Protocol

Next-generation MALDI top-down sequencing of protein biotherapeutics – expanding the scope of timsTOF technology

This new method takes advantage of Trapped Ion Mobility Spectrometry (TIMS), to further enhance MALDI-TDS by adding another dimension of separation in the gas phase.High confidence N- and C-terminal sequencing specifically are enhanced by combining high resolution (~ 60,000 RP) and 2 ppm mass accura... More


Protocol

Transfecting Edit-R™ Cas9 mRNA with Synthetic Guide RNA in Cultured Mammalian Cells

This is an abbreviated protocol for transfecting Edit-R™ Cas9 mRNA (Cat #CAS11195, #CAS11859, or #CAS11860) with synthetic guide RNA into cultured mammalian cells using DharmaFECT™ Duo transfection reagent (Cat #T-2010-xx). Synthetic guide RNA can be either synthetic single guide RNA, or synthetic c... More


Protocol

High-Throughput Detection of Degraded Polysorbate in Biological Formulations with FMM

Excipients like polysorbate are used in the majority of biologic products to improve stability. However, the polysorbate itself can degrade, impairing the stability of the API and contributing an additional aggregate source that can elicit an immunogenic response. Traditionally, monitoring only poly... More


Protocol

IsoCode Single-Cell Adaptive Immune: Human Bispecific Protocol

Overview of ProtocolDay 1: Cryopreserved T cells are thawed and cultured overnight in the presence of IL-2.Day 2: Enrichment, Staining and Antigen Stimulation of CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells for 36-48 hours.Day3: Loading of T cells onto IsoCode chip.... More


Protocol

Single-Cell Intracellular Proteome: HeLa Cell Protocol

Overview of Protocol:Day 1-3: Cryopreserved HeLa cells are thawed and cultured for 72 hours.Day 4: Staining and stimulating of HeLa cells followed by immediate loading onto IsoCode Chip... More


Application

Knock-out cell lines and their use in signaling pathways

Knock-out (KO) cell lines are powerful tools to study disease mechanisms, such as the effect of gene disruption on downstream pathways. In this application note, we highlight the effectiveness of Abcam KO cell lines that can be used to investigate signaling pathways, in this case, the TRAIL pathway.... More


Application

Recombinant RabMAb®: Reliable antibodies for reproducible results

Poorly characterized antibodies often fail to provide consistent, reproducible results, thereby wasting materials, researcher time, and money. Compared to traditional polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, recombinant antibodies exhibit very little batch-to-batch variability, providing scientists wit... More


Application

Antibody conjugation guide

Antibody conjugation, also known as antibody labeling, is the process of chemically linking an antibody to a specific tag. There are many common methods used to conjugate antibodies, although they can have complex protocols and usually require a certain level of skill and expertise. In this guide, w... More


Application

Batch-to-batch consistency of premium grade bioactive proteins

​​​​This white paper demonstrates the batch-to-batch consistency of our premium grade bioactive proteins (growth factors and cytokines). Designed to meet the exacting demands of cell and gene therapy applications, our premium grade proteins are ideal for controlled cell culture. ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​... More


Application

Access the Breadth of Sample Preparation Protocols to Awaken True Functional Immune Biology

Precedent Protocols and Processes ensure that enrichment, stimulation and labeling will result in maximizing the correlative data achieved, while minimizing non-specific impact on the cells themselves. Highlights: • Published enrichment, stimulation, and staining protocols throughout immunotherapy ... More


Application

Technical tips for ELISA and multiplex immunoassay development

Developing a high performance sandwich ELISA or multiplex immunoassay can be complicated, and high performance requires careful development and validation. To help, we have created this guide based on what we have learned during the development of over 500 matched antibody pairs, ELISA kits, and mul... More


Application

The Benchling Life Sciences R&D Cloud

Life science R&D is becoming more complex. Companies need software built for the new way of doing science, or they risk falling behind the next generation of therapeutic development. Enter Benchling. Benchling connects the entire R&D lifecycle — from project documentation and data acquisition to seq... More


Application

Benchling for Gene Therapy & Gene Editing R&D

Modern gene therapy requires investigation of a wide variety of genes of interest, engineering of delivery vectors, and optimization of vector production processes. This necessitates a strong digital foundation to comprehensively characterize gene therapy candidates to bring the best products into t... More


Application

Benchling for Antibody R&D

Innovations in monoclonal antibody technology, bispecifics, and antibody-drug conjugates continue to push the envelope of antibody efficacy and safety. But the industry requires a new kind of digital solution that can offer a holistic view of antibody research and development, integrating large and ... More


Application

Benchling & uniQure: Bringing a gene therapy pioneer from paper to the cloud

uniQure is rapidly advancing a pipeline of AAV-based gene therapies to treat patients with hemophilia, Huntington’s disease, and other severe genetic diseases, but they needed a digital solution that could track their gene therapy workflows end-to-end and enable international collaboration. Learn ho... More


Primer

Assessing Protein Purity: Many Tests, Many Assays

Proteins provide structure to cells, catalyse enzymatic reactions, transport cargo, replicate DNA, metabolise nutrients among an array of other functions. Composed of amino acids and generally featuring a three-dimensional structure, proteins form key therapeutic and diagnostic tools as antibodies o... More


Primer

Expressing, Extracting and Purifying Membrane Proteins

Membrane proteins are key biological players involved in myriad essential cellular processes from molecular transport, cellular communication, and signal transduction to maintaining structures within cells and tissues. Despite their importance, accounting for 25% of all proteins in the human genome ... More


Primer

Unwanted Fungi: Detecting Microbial Cell Culture Contamination

Coming into the lab and spotting an obvious fungal growth, or the tell-tale signs of cloudy media, can be a stressful experience for researchers. When carrying out cell culture in the lab, contamination from microbial agents such as bacteria and fungus can occur and have disastrous effects on ongoin... More


Primer

Saliva, Nasal Swabs, or Blood: Best Samples for Pathogen Detection

Most immunodiagnostic protocols and commercially available kits require serum, plasma, or blood samples. Collecting such samples requires the skills of a phlebotomist. For pathogen detection, particularly in largescale field studies, the collection of noninvasive samples such asnasal swabs, tears, o... More


Primer

Separating Blood into Cellular and Non-Cellular Components

A key diagnostic step in disease detection is analyzing blood components. Accurate separation of blood cells from plasma, which holds proteins and other constituents, is crucial in many assays.First introduced in the late 1980s, lateral flow devices, also referred to as lateral flow immunoassays, ar... More


Primer

Challenges of Organoid Culture

Complex patient models, including organoids and organ-on-a-chip devices, have been developing tremendously fast over the last decade.1 Organoids are 3D multicellular in vitro tissue constructs that functionally and genetically mimic portions of in vivo organs. Properly supplemented media allow the c... More


Primer

Testing Host Immune Responses and Transmissibility

Nonspecific, innate immune response is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Cells of the innate immune system such as macrophages, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells prevent the spread of foreign pathogens throughout the body.An innate immune response also triggers specific a... More


Primer

Tips for Increasing Transfection Efficiency

Chemical transfection, which relies on the formation of a condensed complex of positively chargedliposomal or non-liposomal reagents and negatively charged nucleic acids,is the most common method for delivering foreign genetic material into cultured cells. Complexes are attracted to the negatively c... More


Primer

Methods to Improve Efficiency of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Microfluidic Impedance Cytometry

The global issue of antimicrobial resistance has been called a “slow motion catastrophe” resulting from the excessive and often inappropriate use of antibiotics to fight bacterial infections.1 A long-standing unmet need is the availability of a quick and easy clinical test to support a more evidence... More


Primer

Quick Antibiotic Susceptibility Test for High-Threat Pathogens in Whole Blood Samples

By spreading so rapidly and wreaking so much havoc, COVID-19 has revealed the susceptibility of global societies to both natural pathogens and intentionally released bioterror agents. The latter include bacteria that have been engineered for enhanced antibiotic resistance.1 Once pathogenic bacteria ... More


Mixer

Viral Titer Assays and Interpretations

In this Mixer we will discuss some common methods used to measure viral titers and considerations one should bear in mind when interpreting the results from different assays used to quantify virus particles.Along with all things virology, the recent pandemic has led to focused interest in the accura... More


Mixer

Cell Therapy: Autologous vs Allogeneic Cell Expansion

This Mixer discusses culture systems, integrated consumables, and technical considerations for cell expansion processes in the production of autologous and allogeneic cell therapy products. Our expert panelists will discuss the implementation of scalable, cost-efficient technologies and process opti... More


Mixer

Spatial Biology Tools and Techniques

Single-cell spatial phenotyping is transforming biomedical research in fields ranging from oncology to neuroscience. This GEN Protocols Mixer focuses on technological developments and protocols that have enabled spatial approaches in biology. We will explore novel applications of the technology in d... More


Video

GEN Protocols Expert Exchanges: Tools and Techniques to Develop Therapies for Neurological Disorders

The human brain is an exquisitely complex organ, consisting of nearly one hundred billion neurons, an equivalent number of non-neuronal cells and trillions of synapses. Understanding the factors that play a role in the development of the structure and function of the brain is an essential step to de... More


Audio

GEN Protocols Expert Exchanges: Next Generation Techniques to Develop Genetic Medicines

The past decade has seen a shift in drug discovery to include targeting the root cause of genetic diseases: loss-of-function, gain-of-function, and change-of-function mutations in the genome. Although first generation genetic medicines like gene therapies heralded a new approach to treating previous... More


Video

GEN Protocols Expert Exchanges: Critical ALS Biomarkers of Neuroinflammation & Oxidative Stress

Biomarkers are essential tools for the development of therapeutics, clinical trial design and patient stratification. Biomarkers also help evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic intervention on disease progression or relapse. Yet, biomarker driven patient stratification, a hallmark in oncology trials,... More


Video

GEN Protocols Expert Exchanges: Nanoparticles in Precision Medicine Diagnostics and Delivery

Particles in the size-range of one to 100 nanometres called nanoparticles exhibit significantly different physical and chemical properties owing to their large surface area to volume ratio. Nanoparticles are finding new applications in medicine. They can combine diagnosis and delivery into one devic... More


Video

GEN Protocols Expert Exchanges: Single-Cell RNA Sequencing--Challenges and Solutions

Biological resolution at the level of individual cells is the only route to understanding biological organisms that are a heterogenous composite of different cell types. Single-cell technology is powering the next phase of basic research in biology, translational enquiries, and strategies for person... More