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GEN Protocols

Drug Discovery

Drug Discovery

Video

GEN Protocols Expert Exchanges: Tools and Techniques to Develop Therapies for Neurological Disorders

The human brain is an exquisitely complex organ, consisting of nearly one hundred billion neurons, an equivalent number of non-neuronal cells and trillions of synapses. Understanding the factors that play a role in the development of the structure and function of the brain is an essential step to de... More


Audio

GEN Protocols Expert Exchanges: Next Generation Techniques to Develop Genetic Medicines

The past decade has seen a shift in drug discovery to include targeting the root cause of genetic diseases: loss-of-function, gain-of-function, and change-of-function mutations in the genome. Although first generation genetic medicines like gene therapies heralded a new approach to treating previous... More


Video

GEN Protocols Expert Exchanges: Critical ALS Biomarkers of Neuroinflammation & Oxidative Stress

Biomarkers are essential tools for the development of therapeutics, clinical trial design and patient stratification. Biomarkers also help evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic intervention on disease progression or relapse. Yet, biomarker driven patient stratification, a hallmark in oncology trials,... More


Video

GEN Protocols Expert Exchanges: Nanoparticles in Precision Medicine Diagnostics and Delivery

Particles in the size-range of one to 100 nanometres called nanoparticles exhibit significantly different physical and chemical properties owing to their large surface area to volume ratio. Nanoparticles are finding new applications in medicine. They can combine diagnosis and delivery into one devic... More


Video

GEN Protocols Expert Exchanges: Single-Cell RNA Sequencing--Challenges and Solutions

Biological resolution at the level of individual cells is the only route to understanding biological organisms that are a heterogenous composite of different cell types. Single-cell technology is powering the next phase of basic research in biology, translational enquiries, and strategies for person... More


Mixer

Viral Titer Assays and Interpretations

In this Mixer we will discuss some common methods used to measure viral titers and considerations one should bear in mind when interpreting the results from different assays used to quantify virus particles.Along with all things virology, the recent pandemic has led to focused interest in the accura... More


Mixer

Cell Therapy: Autologous vs Allogeneic Cell Expansion

This Mixer discusses culture systems, integrated consumables, and technical considerations for cell expansion processes in the production of autologous and allogeneic cell therapy products. Our expert panelists will discuss the implementation of scalable, cost-efficient technologies and process opti... More


Mixer

Spatial Biology Tools and Techniques

Single-cell spatial phenotyping is transforming biomedical research in fields ranging from oncology to neuroscience. This GEN Protocols Mixer focuses on technological developments and protocols that have enabled spatial approaches in biology. We will explore novel applications of the technology in d... More


Primer

Assessing Protein Purity: Many Tests, Many Assays

Proteins provide structure to cells, catalyse enzymatic reactions, transport cargo, replicate DNA, metabolise nutrients among an array of other functions. Composed of amino acids and generally featuring a three-dimensional structure, proteins form key therapeutic and diagnostic tools as antibodies o... More


Primer

Expressing, Extracting and Purifying Membrane Proteins

Membrane proteins are key biological players involved in myriad essential cellular processes from molecular transport, cellular communication, and signal transduction to maintaining structures within cells and tissues. Despite their importance, accounting for 25% of all proteins in the human genome ... More


Protocol

CodePlex Secretome

This protocol outlines the standard method for thawing and loading samples onto the CodePlex chip. ... More


Protocol

IsoCode Single-Cell Adaptive Immune: Human CAR-T Protocol Using AF647-Conjugated Antibodies to CD4 and CD8

Overview of ProtocolDay 1: Cryopreserved CAR-T cells are thawed and cultured overnight in the presence of IL-2. Cryopreserved target cell lines are thawed, cultured, and passaged several days prior to beginning the experiment.Day 2: Enrichment and Antigen-Stimulation of CD8 + and/or CD4 + CAR-T cell... More


Protocol

Protein Aggregate Identification with FMM: Rapidly Distinguish Protein from Non-Protein Particles in Biologic Formulations

Don’t rely on unreliable morphology characteristics or refractive index to determine if particles in your formulation are protein or non-protein. Aura systems are the only particle analyzer that combines fluorescence membrane microscopy (FMM) with backgrounded membrane image (BMI) to give you defini... More


Protocol

Studying protein-drug complexes under native conditions in the low nM range using MRMS

Protein ligand complexes need to be preserved through the electrospray and detection process. This work describes high resolution native mass spectrometric measurements of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase II (Figure 1) and the non-covalent complex with the substrate acetazolamide (Figure 2) using a sci... More


Protocol

How to Determine Glycan Profiles of Biopharmaceuticals from Peptide Mapping Data

Glycosylation is a common critical quality attribute (CQA) of therapeutic proteins and needs to be characterized during product development. Typically, this analysis is conducted after enzymatic release and tagging of the glycans followed by fluorescence and MS detection. However, that approach lose... More


Protocol

Next-generation MALDI top-down sequencing of protein biotherapeutics – expanding the scope of timsTOF technology

This new method takes advantage of Trapped Ion Mobility Spectrometry (TIMS), to further enhance MALDI-TDS by adding another dimension of separation in the gas phase.High confidence N- and C-terminal sequencing specifically are enhanced by combining high resolution (~ 60,000 RP) and 2 ppm mass accura... More


Protocol

Transfecting Edit-R™ Cas9 mRNA with Synthetic Guide RNA in Cultured Mammalian Cells

This is an abbreviated protocol for transfecting Edit-R™ Cas9 mRNA (Cat #CAS11195, #CAS11859, or #CAS11860) with synthetic guide RNA into cultured mammalian cells using DharmaFECT™ Duo transfection reagent (Cat #T-2010-xx). Synthetic guide RNA can be either synthetic single guide RNA, or synthetic c... More


Protocol

High-Throughput Detection of Degraded Polysorbate in Biological Formulations with FMM

Excipients like polysorbate are used in the majority of biologic products to improve stability. However, the polysorbate itself can degrade, impairing the stability of the API and contributing an additional aggregate source that can elicit an immunogenic response. Traditionally, monitoring only poly... More


Protocol

IsoCode Single-Cell Adaptive Immune: Human Bispecific Protocol

Overview of ProtocolDay 1: Cryopreserved T cells are thawed and cultured overnight in the presence of IL-2.Day 2: Enrichment, Staining and Antigen Stimulation of CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells for 36-48 hours.Day3: Loading of T cells onto IsoCode chip.... More


Protocol

Single-Cell Intracellular Proteome: HeLa Cell Protocol

Overview of Protocol:Day 1-3: Cryopreserved HeLa cells are thawed and cultured for 72 hours.Day 4: Staining and stimulating of HeLa cells followed by immediate loading onto IsoCode Chip... More


Application

Benchling & Jounce Therapeutics: Migrating to an All-in-One Cloud Solution Saves Time on Data Management

Jounce Therapeutics uses a number of different analytical techniques to identify biomarkers in the tumor microenvironment (TME) that can help them match their drug candidates with the right patients. But they needed a way to manage all their assay and antibody data from concept to IND across differe... More


Application

Benchling for Protein and Peptide Therapeutics R&D

Proteins and peptides make up a wide variety of therapeutic molecules ranging from enzymes to cytokines. These therapeutics have several biological functions and interact with various biological pathways. New classes of proteins and peptides continue to be of significant research interest, but there... More


Application

Benchling for Hybridoma Technology

Hybridoma technology is a well-established method for generating monoclonal antibodies (mAB), but various scientific and organizational challenges persist. Laborious and resource-intensive processes, low titers, and complex assays mean that scientists have to streamline every step, simplify handoffs... More


Application

Benchling for Cell Therapy R&D

Cell therapies such as stem cells, CAR T cells, and TCR have been of significant interest in research over the past few decades. The FDA approval of CAR T therapies has led to renewed interest in the field. As companies rush to bring more novel cell therapies to the market, they face several R&D com... More


Application

Benchling for RNA Therapeutics R&D

Because RNA therapeutics can target conditions that small molecules and proteins cannot address, researchers are now on the verge of treating previously “undruggable” diseases. From the approval of the first antisense oligonucleotide, aptamer, and siRNA, to the now famous launch of mRNA-based COVID-... More


Application

Strategies for the Development of a High Throughput Octet® Bio-Layer Interferometry Method to Measure Pharmacokinetics of Monoclonal Antibodies in Preclinical Animal Models

Therapeutic antibodies are developed to treat various diseases, including cancers, immunological disorders, and infectious diseases. The safety and efficacy of these therapeutic molecules may be influenced by the way they interact with the body. Therefore, it is vital to understand how a body reacts... More


Application

A Fast and High Precision Influenza Vaccine Potency Assay

Fast and accurate determination of vaccine titre during influenza vaccine manufacture is important in understanding process performance and correctly scaling each process step. Traditionally assays such as Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID) and ELISA have their limitations; SRID, though the ‘gold ... More


Primer

Assessing Protein Purity: Many Tests, Many Assays

Proteins provide structure to cells, catalyse enzymatic reactions, transport cargo, replicate DNA, metabolise nutrients among an array of other functions. Composed of amino acids and generally featuring a three-dimensional structure, proteins form key therapeutic and diagnostic tools as antibodies o... More


Primer

Expressing, Extracting and Purifying Membrane Proteins

Membrane proteins are key biological players involved in myriad essential cellular processes from molecular transport, cellular communication, and signal transduction to maintaining structures within cells and tissues. Despite their importance, accounting for 25% of all proteins in the human genome ... More


Primer

Unwanted Fungi: Detecting Microbial Cell Culture Contamination

Coming into the lab and spotting an obvious fungal growth, or the tell-tale signs of cloudy media, can be a stressful experience for researchers. When carrying out cell culture in the lab, contamination from microbial agents such as bacteria and fungus can occur and have disastrous effects on ongoin... More


Primer

Saliva, Nasal Swabs, or Blood: Best Samples for Pathogen Detection

Most immunodiagnostic protocols and commercially available kits require serum, plasma, or blood samples. Collecting such samples requires the skills of a phlebotomist. For pathogen detection, particularly in largescale field studies, the collection of noninvasive samples such asnasal swabs, tears, o... More


Primer

Separating Blood into Cellular and Non-Cellular Components

A key diagnostic step in disease detection is analyzing blood components. Accurate separation of blood cells from plasma, which holds proteins and other constituents, is crucial in many assays.First introduced in the late 1980s, lateral flow devices, also referred to as lateral flow immunoassays, ar... More


Primer

Challenges of Organoid Culture

Complex patient models, including organoids and organ-on-a-chip devices, have been developing tremendously fast over the last decade.1 Organoids are 3D multicellular in vitro tissue constructs that functionally and genetically mimic portions of in vivo organs. Properly supplemented media allow the c... More


Primer

Testing Host Immune Responses and Transmissibility

Nonspecific, innate immune response is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Cells of the innate immune system such as macrophages, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells prevent the spread of foreign pathogens throughout the body.An innate immune response also triggers specific a... More


Primer

Tips for Increasing Transfection Efficiency

Chemical transfection, which relies on the formation of a condensed complex of positively chargedliposomal or non-liposomal reagents and negatively charged nucleic acids,is the most common method for delivering foreign genetic material into cultured cells. Complexes are attracted to the negatively c... More


Primer

Methods to Improve Efficiency of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Microfluidic Impedance Cytometry

The global issue of antimicrobial resistance has been called a “slow motion catastrophe” resulting from the excessive and often inappropriate use of antibiotics to fight bacterial infections.1 A long-standing unmet need is the availability of a quick and easy clinical test to support a more evidence... More


Primer

Quick Antibiotic Susceptibility Test for High-Threat Pathogens in Whole Blood Samples

By spreading so rapidly and wreaking so much havoc, COVID-19 has revealed the susceptibility of global societies to both natural pathogens and intentionally released bioterror agents. The latter include bacteria that have been engineered for enhanced antibiotic resistance.1 Once pathogenic bacteria ... More


Mixer

Viral Titer Assays and Interpretations

In this Mixer we will discuss some common methods used to measure viral titers and considerations one should bear in mind when interpreting the results from different assays used to quantify virus particles.Along with all things virology, the recent pandemic has led to focused interest in the accura... More


Mixer

Cell Therapy: Autologous vs Allogeneic Cell Expansion

This Mixer discusses culture systems, integrated consumables, and technical considerations for cell expansion processes in the production of autologous and allogeneic cell therapy products. Our expert panelists will discuss the implementation of scalable, cost-efficient technologies and process opti... More


Mixer

Spatial Biology Tools and Techniques

Single-cell spatial phenotyping is transforming biomedical research in fields ranging from oncology to neuroscience. This GEN Protocols Mixer focuses on technological developments and protocols that have enabled spatial approaches in biology. We will explore novel applications of the technology in d... More


Video

GEN Protocols Expert Exchanges: Tools and Techniques to Develop Therapies for Neurological Disorders

The human brain is an exquisitely complex organ, consisting of nearly one hundred billion neurons, an equivalent number of non-neuronal cells and trillions of synapses. Understanding the factors that play a role in the development of the structure and function of the brain is an essential step to de... More


Audio

GEN Protocols Expert Exchanges: Next Generation Techniques to Develop Genetic Medicines

The past decade has seen a shift in drug discovery to include targeting the root cause of genetic diseases: loss-of-function, gain-of-function, and change-of-function mutations in the genome. Although first generation genetic medicines like gene therapies heralded a new approach to treating previous... More


Video

GEN Protocols Expert Exchanges: Critical ALS Biomarkers of Neuroinflammation & Oxidative Stress

Biomarkers are essential tools for the development of therapeutics, clinical trial design and patient stratification. Biomarkers also help evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic intervention on disease progression or relapse. Yet, biomarker driven patient stratification, a hallmark in oncology trials,... More


Video

GEN Protocols Expert Exchanges: Nanoparticles in Precision Medicine Diagnostics and Delivery

Particles in the size-range of one to 100 nanometres called nanoparticles exhibit significantly different physical and chemical properties owing to their large surface area to volume ratio. Nanoparticles are finding new applications in medicine. They can combine diagnosis and delivery into one devic... More


Video

GEN Protocols Expert Exchanges: Single-Cell RNA Sequencing--Challenges and Solutions

Biological resolution at the level of individual cells is the only route to understanding biological organisms that are a heterogenous composite of different cell types. Single-cell technology is powering the next phase of basic research in biology, translational enquiries, and strategies for person... More