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GEN Protocols

Analytical Testing

Analytical Testing

Protocol

Is Your AAV Payload Impacting Stability? Find out with Aura GT

Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) have transformed gene therapies by enabling the targeted delivery of therapeutic genetic payloads. However, the amount of AAV material available is consistently in short supply due to its inherently expensive, time-consuming, and laborious production process. This ham... More


Protocol

Short Communication: Ischemic Stroke Subtypes Among Thai HIV-Infected Patients: A 12-Year Retrospective Study

Traditional vascular risk factors and HIV-related factors can contribute to higher prevalence of ischemic stroke (IS) among HIV-infected patients. Understanding the underlying mechanism of IS could lead to proper management and prognosis. We aimed to determine the prevalence of IS subtypes among HIV... More


Protocol

Short Communication: A Descriptive Analysis of Dried Blood Spot Adherence Testing Among Ugandans with HIV Presenting with Cryptococcal Meningitis

Early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation after cryptococcal meningitis increases mortality, and those unmasking cryptococcosis after 2 weeks of ART have higher mortality. However, it is unknown if those presenting as ART experienced are actually adherent to their ART. Unknowingly, restarting AR... More


Protocol

Short Communication:Evidence of Novel SARS-CoV-2 Variants Circulation in Romania

New SARS-CoV-2 variants are constantly emerging and putting a strain on public health systems by spreading faster and potentially evading immune protection through vaccination. One of these strains is the B.1.1.7 variant that has initially been described in the United Kingdom and has subsequently sp... More


Protocol

Short Communication: Validation of the Asante HIV-1 Rapid Recency Assay for Detection of Recent HIV-1 Infections in Uganda

Point of care rapid recency testing for HIV-1 may be a cost-effective tool to identify recently infected individuals for incidence estimation, and focused HIV prevention through intensified contact tracing. We validated the Asante™ HIV-1 rapid recency® assay for use in Uganda. Archived specimens (se... More


Protocol

Locus-Specific Genomic DNA Purification Using the CRISPR System: Methods and Applications

A multitude of molecular interactions with chromatin governs various chromosomal functions in cells. Insights into the molecular compositions at specific genomic regions are pivotal to deepen our understanding of regulatory mechanisms and the pathogenesis of disorders caused by the abnormal regulati... More


Protocol

Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Glycemic Control in Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes: Benefit for Even the Simplest Insulin Administration Methods

The impact of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on glycemic control in young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is controversial. Data from 888 young adults with T1D were reviewed (ages 18–30 years, 52% female, glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] 8.1% ± 1.5%). Prescription of CGM was recorded for 54% of yo... More


Protocol

Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Children and Adults with Type 1 Diabetes

Objective: As diabetes is a risk factor for severe symptoms, hospitalization, and death with COVID-19 disease, we aimed to assess the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in children and adults with and without type 1 diabetes in Colorado during 2020.... More


Protocol

Sustainable Use of a Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring System from 2018 to 2020

We aimed to describe patterns of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system use and glycemic outcomes from 2018 to 2020 in a large real-world cohort by analyzing anonymized data from US-based CGM users who transitioned from the G5 to the G6 System (Dexcom) in 2018. The main end points were persisten... More


Protocol

Correlates of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Use Trajectories in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

The goal of this study was to characterize trajectories of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) use in youth 5–12 weeks after starting CGM and examine what factors differentiate between the trajectory groups. Parent–youth dyads completed assessments before starting CGM. Days of CGM use between weeks ... More


Protocol

A Rabbit Femoral Condyle Defect Model for Assessment of Osteochondral Tissue Regeneration

Osteochondral tissue repair represents a common clinical need, with multiple approaches in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine being investigated for the repair of defects of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. A full thickness rabbit femoral condyle defect is a clinically relevant mo... More


Protocol

An Automated Low-Cost Swim Tunnel for Measuring Swimming Performance in Fish

The study of swimming behavior is an important part of fish biology research and the swim tunnel is used to study swimming performance as well as metabolism of fish. In this investigation, we have developed a user-friendly, automated, modular, and low-cost swim tunnel that permits to study the perfo... More


Protocol

Gene Therapy for Hemoglobinopathies

Gene therapy for β-thalassemia and sickle-cell disease is based on transplantation of genetically corrected, autologous hematopoietic stem cells. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic approach, currently based on lentiviral vectors to transfer a β-gl... More


Protocol

Advances in Gene Therapy for Diseases of the Eye

Over the last few years, huge progress has been made with regard to the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases of the eye. Such knowledge has led to the development of gene therapy approaches to treat these devastating disorders. Challenges re... More


Protocol

Aspects of Gene Therapy Products Using Current Genome-Editing Technology in Japan

The development of genome-editing technology could lead to breakthrough gene therapy. Genome editing has made it possible to easily knock out or modify a target gene, while current gene therapy using a virus vector or plasmid hampering modification with respect to gene replacement therapies. Clinica... More


Protocol

Adeno-Associated Virus Gene Therapy for Liver Disease

The field of adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy has progressed rapidly over the past decade, with the advent of novel capsid serotype and organ-specific promoters, and an increasing understanding of the immune response to AAV administration. In particular, liver-directed therapy has made rema... More


Protocol

Adeno-Associated Virus-Based Gene Therapy for CNS Diseases

Gene therapy is at the cusp of a revolution for treating a large spectrum of CNS disorders by providing a durable therapeutic protein via a single administration. Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer is of particular interest as a therapeutic tool because of its safety profile and eff... More


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Primer

Assessing Protein Purity: Many Tests, Many Assays

Proteins provide structure to cells, catalyse enzymatic reactions, transport cargo, replicate DNA, metabolise nutrients among an array of other functions. Composed of amino acids and generally featuring a three-dimensional structure, proteins form key therapeutic and diagnostic tools as antibodies o... More


Primer

Two Critical Steps to Success in Multicolor Flow Cytometry

Flow cytometry is a powerful tool to analyze and characterize cells based on their protein expression, most often those expressed on the cell surface. Multicolor flow cytometry uses multiple fluorochromes as primary or secondary antibody conjugates to label cells. The capacity for modern flow cytome... More


Primer

Considerations when Selecting a Matrix for MALDI

One of the most widely utilized techniques in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is label-free MALDI (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization), which can be coupled to a variety of mass analyzers to create brilliant molecular maps. Application targets include lipids, proteins, peptides, drugs, and ... More


Primer

Is Your Flow Cytometer Reliable?

Flow cytometry provides a useful method by which scientists can measure and analyse different properties of individual cells, including size, internal complexity (granularity) and the presence of cell surface and intracellular markers using fluorescence. Flow can help identify individual cell subpop... More


Primer

Unwanted Fungi: Detecting Microbial Cell Culture Contamination

Coming into the lab and spotting an obvious fungal growth, or the tell-tale signs of cloudy media, can be a stressful experience for researchers. When carrying out cell culture in the lab, contamination from microbial agents such as bacteria and fungus can occur and have disastrous effects on ongoin... More


Primer

Benefits of Using an Electronic Laboratory Notebook

Electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs) were developed to keep track of experiments and data so that scientists could review their work in a single place and easily reproduce experiments. Many ELNs started out as electronic versions of paper lab notebooks. Now, the most advanced ELNs offer an extensi... More


Primer

Quick Antibiotic Susceptibility Test for High-Threat Pathogens in Whole Blood Samples

By spreading so rapidly and wreaking so much havoc, COVID-19 has revealed the susceptibility of global societies to both natural pathogens and intentionally released bioterror agents. The latter include bacteria that have been engineered for enhanced antibiotic resistance.1 Once pathogenic bacteria ... More


Primer

Bio-Electrospraying and Cell Electrospinning: A Sea of Applications

Electrospraying and electrospinning have been used for a wide range of applications ranging from coatings, propulsion, and pesticide sprays to scaffolding a wide range of advanced materials for applications in filtration and tissue engineering. Although electrospun scaffolds have been explored as ti... More


Primer

Techniques to Detect Unusual Nucleic Acid Structures

Guanine quadruplexes (G-quadruplexes or G4s) are unusual nucleic acid structures with distinct biological and chemical functions. They have occupied significant attention in the nucleic acid world since they were first identified in 1962 as the basis for the aggregation of 5’-guanosine monophosphate... More


Primer

Cloning Mice From Freeze Dried Somatic Cells

As species continue to face massive extinction, preserving genetic material through judicious biobanking to enable cloning is key to promoting the survival of species and maintaining biodiversity.Embryos and germ cells are commonly stored at ultra-low temperatures in liquid nitrogen. But storing rep... More


Mixer

Cell Therapy Development: Tackling Analytic Challenges

Cell therapy products are an exciting new class of medicinal products that offer opportunities to treat and cure diseases that cannot be treated using conventional therapeutic options. The development and manufacturing of cell therapy products pose several challenges compared to other biologics. Yet... More


Video

GEN Protocols Expert Exchanges: COVID-19 Immunodiagnostic Test Identifies Antibody Source

Need another COVID-19 booster?A new immunodiagnostic test called PictArray helps you decide. The test tells you exactly where your antibodies to the virus are coming from - whether your antibodies are from vaccines or SARS-CoV-2 infections, or both. The test detects SARS-CoV-2 antigens--both spike p... More