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GEN Protocols

Analytical Testing

Analytical Testing

Primer

Techniques to Detect Unusual Nucleic Acid Structures

Guanine quadruplexes (G-quadruplexes or G4s) are unusual nucleic acid structures with distinct biological and chemical functions. They have occupied significant attention in the nucleic acid world since they were first identified in 1962 as the basis for the aggregation of 5’-guanosine monophosphate... More


Primer

Cloning Mice From Freeze Dried Somatic Cells

As species continue to face massive extinction, preserving genetic material through judicious biobanking to enable cloning is key to promoting the survival of species and maintaining biodiversity.Embryos and germ cells are commonly stored at ultra-low temperatures in liquid nitrogen. But storing rep... More


Primer

Behavior of Metal Bearing Nanomaterials in Biosystems

Nanomaterials are being engineered to facilitate a range of applications in diagnosing diseases and delivering drugs. The widespread adoption of nanotechnological applications in medicine rests on the ability to safely target nanomaterials and understand how they behave in biological tissue environs... More


Primer

Nanotip Stabilization Enables Prolonged Nanoscale Imaging of Large Samples

An innovation that stabilizes the nanotip used in tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) prolongs the imaging time window well beyond the current 30 minute limit. Scientists have demonstrated that the enhanced system is capable of imaging nanoscale defects over six hours in a micrometer-sized, two-d... More


Primer

Orthogonal Validation in Genome Editing Discovery Work

Simply put, orthogonal validation uses additional methods that provide very different selectivity to the primary method to confirm or refute a finding. All methods are independent approaches that can answer the same question and are used to evaluate and verify the findings. According toClarence Mill... More


Primer

Fluorination Increases Bioavailability and Stability of Natural Therapeutics

A novel chemoenzymatic method can add fluorine atoms to natural compounds. The method uses an enzyme that acts as a gatekeeper for precursors and designs a pinch of precursor tolerance to create a more promiscuous bacterial enzyme that accepts fluorine-containing reactants.Fluorination of therapeuti... More


Primer

Analytical Weights and Balances: Minimizing Errors

Pharma companies that use balances for analytical purposes must check them regularly to ensure they meet required standards and to prevent human errors. The European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines Healthcare (EDQM) has recently published updated guidelines1 for analytical balancing that d... More


Protocol

Skin Freezing Technique for Living Cell Bank

Cell banks are especially important sources of studies for which living cells are needed, as well as a repository of genetic diversity in natural populations. We propose a simple protocol for field research that can maintain viable skin cells for in vitro replication and production of fibroblast lin... More


Protocol

Protein Aggregate Identification with FMM: Rapidly Distinguish Protein from Non-Protein Particles in Biologic Formulations

Don’t rely on unreliable morphology characteristics or refractive index to determine if particles in your formulation are protein or non-protein. Aura systems are the only particle analyzer that combines fluorescence membrane microscopy (FMM) with backgrounded membrane image (BMI) to give you defini... More


Protocol

High-Throughput Detection of Degraded Polysorbate in Biological Formulations with FMM

Excipients like polysorbate are used in the majority of biologic products to improve stability. However, the polysorbate itself can degrade, impairing the stability of the API and contributing an additional aggregate source that can elicit an immunogenic response. Traditionally, monitoring only poly... More


Protocol

Performing a manual run on your Xuri™ Cell Expansion System W25

The purpose of this protocol is to provide instructions on how to perform a manual run on the Xuri™ Cell Expansion System W25 using UNICORN™ software.This protocol applies to anyone performing a manual run on the Xuri™ Cell Expansion System W25.... More


Protocol

Radiolabelling Nucleic Acids with [γ-32P] ATP for Analytical Assays

Nucleic acids are readily modified with tags that enable detection, purification, or tracking their interactions with other molecules. One of the standard labels used to generate nucleic acid probes includes radioactive phosphates because they allow for sensitive and rapid detection. This protocol d... More


Protocol

Preparing a Brain-Mimetic 3D Matrix for Culturing Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

This is a protocol for culturing human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) using a 3D matrix. It provides instructions for preparing a brain-mimetic 3D scaffold that can support neuronal growth and for culturing hPSCs. This injectable scaffold can be potentially employed in the field of regenerative medi... More


Protocol

Is Your AAV Payload Impacting Stability? Find out with Aura GT

Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) have transformed gene therapies by enabling the targeted delivery of therapeutic genetic payloads. However, the amount of AAV material available is consistently in short supply due to its inherently expensive, time-consuming, and laborious production process. This ham... More


Protocol

Short Communication: Ischemic Stroke Subtypes Among Thai HIV-Infected Patients: A 12-Year Retrospective Study

Traditional vascular risk factors and HIV-related factors can contribute to higher prevalence of ischemic stroke (IS) among HIV-infected patients. Understanding the underlying mechanism of IS could lead to proper management and prognosis. We aimed to determine the prevalence of IS subtypes among HIV... More


Protocol

Short Communication: A Descriptive Analysis of Dried Blood Spot Adherence Testing Among Ugandans with HIV Presenting with Cryptococcal Meningitis

Early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation after cryptococcal meningitis increases mortality, and those unmasking cryptococcosis after 2 weeks of ART have higher mortality. However, it is unknown if those presenting as ART experienced are actually adherent to their ART. Unknowingly, restarting AR... More


Protocol

Short Communication:Evidence of Novel SARS-CoV-2 Variants Circulation in Romania

New SARS-CoV-2 variants are constantly emerging and putting a strain on public health systems by spreading faster and potentially evading immune protection through vaccination. One of these strains is the B.1.1.7 variant that has initially been described in the United Kingdom and has subsequently sp... More


Protocol

Short Communication: Validation of the Asante HIV-1 Rapid Recency Assay for Detection of Recent HIV-1 Infections in Uganda

Point of care rapid recency testing for HIV-1 may be a cost-effective tool to identify recently infected individuals for incidence estimation, and focused HIV prevention through intensified contact tracing. We validated the Asante™ HIV-1 rapid recency® assay for use in Uganda. Archived specimens (se... More


Protocol

Locus-Specific Genomic DNA Purification Using the CRISPR System: Methods and Applications

A multitude of molecular interactions with chromatin governs various chromosomal functions in cells. Insights into the molecular compositions at specific genomic regions are pivotal to deepen our understanding of regulatory mechanisms and the pathogenesis of disorders caused by the abnormal regulati... More


Protocol

Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Glycemic Control in Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes: Benefit for Even the Simplest Insulin Administration Methods

The impact of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on glycemic control in young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is controversial. Data from 888 young adults with T1D were reviewed (ages 18–30 years, 52% female, glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] 8.1% ± 1.5%). Prescription of CGM was recorded for 54% of yo... More


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Primer

Assessing Protein Purity: Many Tests, Many Assays

Proteins provide structure to cells, catalyse enzymatic reactions, transport cargo, replicate DNA, metabolise nutrients among an array of other functions. Composed of amino acids and generally featuring a three-dimensional structure, proteins form key therapeutic and diagnostic tools as antibodies o... More


Primer

Two Critical Steps to Success in Multicolor Flow Cytometry

Flow cytometry is a powerful tool to analyze and characterize cells based on their protein expression, most often those expressed on the cell surface. Multicolor flow cytometry uses multiple fluorochromes as primary or secondary antibody conjugates to label cells. The capacity for modern flow cytome... More


Primer

Considerations when Selecting a Matrix for MALDI

One of the most widely utilized techniques in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is label-free MALDI (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization), which can be coupled to a variety of mass analyzers to create brilliant molecular maps. Application targets include lipids, proteins, peptides, drugs, and ... More


Primer

Is Your Flow Cytometer Reliable?

Flow cytometry provides a useful method by which scientists can measure and analyse different properties of individual cells, including size, internal complexity (granularity) and the presence of cell surface and intracellular markers using fluorescence. Flow can help identify individual cell subpop... More


Primer

Unwanted Fungi: Detecting Microbial Cell Culture Contamination

Coming into the lab and spotting an obvious fungal growth, or the tell-tale signs of cloudy media, can be a stressful experience for researchers. When carrying out cell culture in the lab, contamination from microbial agents such as bacteria and fungus can occur and have disastrous effects on ongoin... More


Primer

Benefits of Using an Electronic Laboratory Notebook

Electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs) were developed to keep track of experiments and data so that scientists could review their work in a single place and easily reproduce experiments. Many ELNs started out as electronic versions of paper lab notebooks. Now, the most advanced ELNs offer an extensi... More


Primer

Quick Antibiotic Susceptibility Test for High-Threat Pathogens in Whole Blood Samples

By spreading so rapidly and wreaking so much havoc, COVID-19 has revealed the susceptibility of global societies to both natural pathogens and intentionally released bioterror agents. The latter include bacteria that have been engineered for enhanced antibiotic resistance.1 Once pathogenic bacteria ... More


Primer

Bio-Electrospraying and Cell Electrospinning: A Sea of Applications

Electrospraying and electrospinning have been used for a wide range of applications ranging from coatings, propulsion, and pesticide sprays to scaffolding a wide range of advanced materials for applications in filtration and tissue engineering. Although electrospun scaffolds have been explored as ti... More


Primer

Techniques to Detect Unusual Nucleic Acid Structures

Guanine quadruplexes (G-quadruplexes or G4s) are unusual nucleic acid structures with distinct biological and chemical functions. They have occupied significant attention in the nucleic acid world since they were first identified in 1962 as the basis for the aggregation of 5’-guanosine monophosphate... More


Primer

Cloning Mice From Freeze Dried Somatic Cells

As species continue to face massive extinction, preserving genetic material through judicious biobanking to enable cloning is key to promoting the survival of species and maintaining biodiversity.Embryos and germ cells are commonly stored at ultra-low temperatures in liquid nitrogen. But storing rep... More


Mixer

Cell Therapy Development: Tackling Analytic Challenges

Cell therapy products are an exciting new class of medicinal products that offer opportunities to treat and cure diseases that cannot be treated using conventional therapeutic options. The development and manufacturing of cell therapy products pose several challenges compared to other biologics. Yet... More


Video

GEN Protocols Expert Exchanges: COVID-19 Immunodiagnostic Test Identifies Antibody Source

Need another COVID-19 booster?A new immunodiagnostic test called PictArray helps you decide. The test tells you exactly where your antibodies to the virus are coming from - whether your antibodies are from vaccines or SARS-CoV-2 infections, or both. The test detects SARS-CoV-2 antigens--both spike p... More